Abstract: A poll conducted with one parent from each of 56 families having a child aged four to seven years old indicated that 46 (82%) had / would use moderate spanking in child-rearing, 3 (5%) used non-spanking consequences. 7 (13%) used “Positive Parenting” styles including no consequences.

The research identified two children sanctioned for hitting or bullying another child at school. Both came from one of the 7 positive parenting styles The probability that this is a random observation is 1.4% or 1 in 73.33. This link suggests that the spectrum of parenting styles that employ moderate spanking as a back-up to other methods produce on-balance, children less inclined to behave violently towards other children than the spectrum of parenting styles which exclude consequences.